CAPABILITY OF AGRARIAN REVOLUTION TOWARDS ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Over the years the agricultural sector has been the most consistent sector contributing to the growth and development of the economy of most developing nations; in Nigeria for instance since the oil boom back in the 1970s. The federal government of Nigeria has neglected the agricultural sector of Nigeria; little or no funds have been are allocated to this sector. The over dependency in the oil sector of Nigeria has it shortcomings; when there is fluctuation in the oil price, so does the economy of Nigeria fluctuate.
The federal government of Nigeria and her team came together to reverse the ugly occurrences by attempting to begin implementing market-oriented reforms designed to diversify economic growth in 2008; although the process was reported to be slow but report claim that the nation is undergoing a state of transformation from subsistence farming to business-oriented agriculture designed to once again become a substantial portion of the nation’s GDP. The federal government of Nigeria through IFDC redemption clerks prepares vouchers for farmers in Taraba State during the 2012 Fertilizer Voucher Program as a motivating factor to enhance the consistency in the practice of agriculture.
According to Calestous Juma (2009), he stated that making agricultural sector a priority for national development could yield great benefit, he went on to say that the aim is particularly in achieving food security and reducing hunger; increasing incomes and reducing poverty level of a nation; advancing the human development agenda in health and education; and reversing environmental damage.
According to (Kydd, 2002) stated that in most developing countries, decision planners and their field workers are usually faced with the issue of how to increase and improve yield without degrading the soil and water resources; they are also faced with the problem on how to meet the production targets as regards the increase the prices of farm input costs and foreign exchange. He went on to say that the people living in the rural areas are more likely to hold a smaller part of agriculture as farmers, labourers, marketers’ transporters, and other agricultural services to households depends only on agriculture for livelihood.
The question here is why agricultural revolution? Well the truth of the matter is that food is simply the most basic need among all other necessity; the national power also depends on food. A nation with the highest level of food production to feed the citizen and for sales tends to be respected globally as they will compete favourably in the international market.
According to (fine, 1998) stated that our biological, spiritual and ethical health depends on food in various ways. It is to this regard that the researcher wishes to carry out a study on the capability of agrarian revolution towards achieving food security in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
What really instigated this research is due to over dependency of Nigeria on oil even as there is great fluctuation in the oil price of the country. Nigeria as a country has experienced failure in their pursuit for agricultural revolution due to political rivalry in Nigeria; which in turns developed into civil war from 1967 to 1970.
The desire to survive the onslaught of the “Biafrans” made the federal government of Nigeria under the ruler-ship of General Yakubu Gowon to search for any available means to finance the war against the Biafrans; the only way out was to increase the oil prospecting to the detriment of steady growth and development of agriculture; this continued up to the mid 60s.
According to Schafer (2002) stated that the major characteristics of the chronic and political instability among others include the following:
- Existence of high susceptibility to the rate of violence.
2. Forced displacement; refugees and internally displaced people. 3. Limitation to the right of the citizens of the country.
4. Livelihoods highly vulnerable to external shocks existence of serious poverty.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of the research work is to examine the relationship between the agrarian revolution and the achievement of food security in Nigeria. The specific aims of the research work are stated below as follows:
- To examine the effect of the agrarian revolution on food security in Nigeria
- To investigate on the factors affecting agricultural development in Nigeria
- To examine the effect of change in political administration on the achievement of agricultural revolution in Nigeria
- To examine the roles of agrarian revolution in the growth and development of the Nigeria economy
- To proffer solution to the factors affecting the effective implementation of agricultural revolution program in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study came up with the following research question so as to achieve the above stated objectives. The research questions are stated below as follows:
- What is the effect of the agrarian revolution on food security in Nigeria?
- What are the factors affecting agricultural development in Nigeria?
- What is the effect of change in political administration on the achievement of agricultural revolution in Nigeria?
- What are the roles of agrarian revolution in the growth and development of the Nigeria economy?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Agrarian revolution has no significant effect on food security in Nigeria
H1: Agrarian revolution has significant effect on food security in Nigeria
H0: change in political administration has no significant impact on the achievement of agricultural revolution in Nigeria
H1: change in political administration has significant impact on the achievement of agricultural revolution in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work will be of immense benefit to the nation and its citizens, the federal government of Nigeria, the state, the ministry of agriculture of Nigeria, the rural and the urban areas of Nigeria, the farmers, traders; the study will also be of great importance to the growth and development of Nigeria. Finally the study will assist students and other researchers that wish to carry out a similar research on the topic.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study capability of agrarian revolution towards achieving food security in Nigeria will cover the agricultural sector of Nigeria, the performance of the agricultural sector of Nigeria, food security and the effect of agrarian revolution on food security.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FOOD SECURITY: Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
AGRARIAN REVOLUTION: The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production.
Carney D (1998) (ed). Sustainable rural livelihoods. What contribution can we make? Papers presented at the DFID Natural Resources Advisers’ Conference, July 1998. DFID, London. Fine B (1998). The political Economy of Diet, Health and Food Policy. London. Routledge. Honadle G, Sant VJ (1985). Implementation for sustainability - Lessons from integrated Rural Development. West Harford. Kumarian Press. Kydd J (2002). "Agriculture and rural livelihoods; Is glo balisation opening or blocking paths out of rural poverty? Agricultural Research, and Extension Network paper 121, Overseas Development Institute. London.