PERSONALITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROUP PERFORMANCE
ABSTRACT Group performance in every organization is very important, as it depicts the overall performance of the organization. If various individuals in an organization cannot work as a group, then the organization’s performance-both financial and operational will never be maximized. Group efforts and team work is the major ingredient in every successful organization, hence, the need to make sure that the personality of every member in the group is okay for group/organizational goals to be achieved. Without good personalities in a group, there can never be a good group. The researcher used Ghana National Fire Service (Eastern Regional Office), as a case study to find out the effects of personality on group performance, as well as solutions to these negative effects. Concerning methodology, data used in compiling this research were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The management and employees of Ghana National Service (Eastern Regional Office) were issued questionnaires. Text Books, Magazines and News Papers on personalities, groups and individual psychology were also used in compiling this research. Based on the findings revealed from the data analysis and interpretation, the researcher came up with some suggestions and recommendations. The major findings in this study include: the various personalities exhibited by employees in a group, and there are: the openness personality, conscientiousness personality, extraversion personality, and agreeableness personality. The negative effects of personality on group performance, which are: poor performance, delayed output, and incomplete output. The research also went ahead to find ways to improve group performance. These findings and recommendations, in view of the researcher, will help improve group performance in various business organizations in Ghana, if implemented by mangers of various business organizations.
The desire to build a sound conducive environment for an organization is the desire of every loyal employee of an organization. Personalities of employees can take an organization to greater heights, above its competitors, and at the same way, bad personalities can bring down the organization. Intelligence and emotional quotient which basically forms an employee’s personality type must be balanced, for the employee to act effectively and easily relate with his/her job, and other employees in a cordial way. However, an employee will not be able to work in a group/team if the employee does not posses a good personality. When this occurs, group efforts and performance tends to fail, thereby reducing the performance of the organization as a whole.
However, this research was undertaken to help enlighten organizations of the various personality types employees in an organization might posses, and to suggest ways in which an organization can increase performance. Various personality issues, personality types and threats and its effects on group performance are highlighted in this study.
1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY
After a thorough research on the group performances of organizations in Ghana, it became evident that individual personality and contribution played a lot of role in the success or failure of the group, hence needed much attention because; team work is the major ingredient for increased and high performances in every organization.
The main reason for initiating this project is to research on the various personality types and traits of employees in an organization in Ghana, throw more light on the effects of these traits on group performance, and proffer solutions as well as recommendations for managers of various organizations in Ghana to deliberate upon and make informed decisions.
The study started with casual discussion among employers and employees of various business organizations concerning their views on group performances in organizations in Ghana and their expectations. It later developed into a full research when the researcher developed more interest in the topic, and decided to get more information from more employees, government agencies, and other secondary documentations.
The Ghana National Fire Service was established by Act 537, (GNFS Act of 1997) to give a broad objective and prevention and management of undesired fires and other related matters. To achieve this objective, the service is expected to perform the following functions:
· To organize public fire education programs.
· To create and sustain awareness of the hazards of fire.
· To heighten the role of the individual in the prevention of fires.
· To provide technical advice for building plans in respect of machinery and structural layouts to facilitate escape from fire, rescue operations and fire management.
· To inspect and offer technical advice on fire extinguishers.
· To co-ordinate and advice on the training of personnel in fire fighting departments institutions in the country.
· To train and organize fire volunteer squads at community level.
· To offer rescue and evacuation services to those trapped by fire or in other emergency situations, and
· To undertake any other function incidental to the objective of the service.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Based on previous studies conducted on personality and group performance, it is clear that most group (especially homogeneous groups) efforts fail in most organizations, due to individual personalities in the group. Individual differences, inefficiency, and ineffectiveness cause most group tasks to fail. A study conducted by Rutherford (2006) indicates that for complex problem solving, groups made up of different types of individuals with a variety of skills, knowledge, abilities and perspectives are more effective than groups that are more homogeneous.
One of the reasons for creating a group is for individuals or employees to showcase their skills and to contribute in the development of an organization or to achieve the group’s goals. But some individual’s personality affects or influences the effectiveness of the group or team. Since various personalities are involved in a team it may lead to lack of harmony and trust between individuals in the sense that there will be the limitation of information because of the different personalities that are involved.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to examine various personality traits of individuals in a group and its effects on group performance.Hence the objectives of the study are outlined as follows:
1. To identify the various personality traits exhibited by employees in a group.
2. To identify the negative effects of personality traits on group performance in an organization.
3. To identify ways of improving group performance in an organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the following research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives of this research:
1. What are the various personality traits that are exhibited by employees in a group?
2. What are the negative effects of personality trait on group performance?
3. How can group performance be improved in an organization?
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The end product of this research shall be relevant to so many groups. It will serve as a guide to employees who engage in group assignments in various organizations such as the Ghana fire service. It shall also be relevant to professional groups for research and academic purposes to know more about the effect of personality on group or team performance and to the general public.
1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the research is limited to the analysis of the big five personality trait proposed by Lewis Goldberg. This research is also centered on Ghana National Fire Service, since its operations are mostly executed in groups. The Eastern Regional Branch of the Ghana national Fire Service was used as the major case study for this study.
1.7 TIME FRAME
This study lasted for five months before it was complete. The study lasted from August 2011 to December 2011.
The only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.
1.9 CHAPTER SCHEME
Chapter one of this study includes the general introduction, background information about the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study, and the limitation of the study.
Chapter two reviews all relevant literatures relating to the study as well as the researcher’s views concerning previous studies on personality and group performance.
Chapter three includes the methodology applied in collecting and analyzing data, population definition, study site, and limitations.
Chapter four presents the results of the study as well as data analyzed, and the interpretation of the analyzed data.
Chapter five includes a summary of the study, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings from the study.