THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER STUDIES ON BUSINESS EDUCATION STUDIES IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING
The study was carried out on the impact of computer studies on business education in higher institutions of learning in Enugu State. The sample from this study comprised of 172 students and 10 academic staffs from Schools/Departments of Business Education of selected institutions. The data used were collected through a questionnaire and responses thereof were analyzed by the use of weighted mean. The findings were that recent changes brought about by computer studies into business education are encouraging and the introductions of computers into business education make accounting work easier. Further, it was found that computer studies in business education use accounting software and these computers affect the performance of business operators in Nigeria. The graduates of business education that are computer literate have better chances of getting employment. The work went on to conclude that computer is inevitable in the field of business education so that graduates of business education should face squarely the challenges of work in every sector in the world today given the current globalization process regarding information technology and the world being global village for information superhighway and state-of “the-art thereof.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In 1949 the government of Nigeria appointed F.J. Harlow, principal of Chelsea Polytechnic (London) to asses the need of establishing a College or Colleges of Higher Technical Education (Fafunwa 1994). The report of the two teams led to the establishment in 1952 of three regional Colleges named the Nigeria Colleges of Art, Science and Technology with branches at Ibadan, Enugu and Zaria. Chronological emergence of the Polytechnics showed that the first full blown Polytechnics in Nigeria were first and foremost Technical Institute or Colleges which were primarily established to train technicians. To mention for instance, the Yaba Technical Institute that metamorphosed to the present Yaba College of Technology in 1963 is one of such institute.
However, in the 1970’s Polytechnics/Colleges of Technology were established under various laws which recognize them as statutory bodies with autonomous status. The Institute of Management and Technology is not only a State owned Polytechnic but amongst the first generation of Polytechnics in Nigeria. The Enugu state University of Science and Technology started from one of the campuses of Institute of Management and Technology.
A recent event is that Enugu State College of Education (Technical) equally took off from a former Campus 2 of Institute of Management of Technology. The latest is Enugu State College of Agriculture and Agro Entrepreneurship, Iwollo. Conclusively, the Government of Enugu State has four tertiary Institutions of higher learning in Enugu State, Nigeria. The research will be basically interested in the Enugu State University of Science and Technology and College of Education (Technical), Enugu.
Also, there are several privately owned tertiary institutions namely: Institute of Ecumenical Education, Thinkers Corner Enugu; Our Savior Institute of Science, Agriculture and Technology, OSISATECH; African Thinkers College of Education, Enugu; Caritas University Emene Enugu; Renaissance University Ugbauka, Enugu; Bishop Okoye University, Emene Enugu; and The College of Education, Nsukka. However, there are other tertiary Institutions of higher learning owned by Federal Government of Nigeria. They are; University of Nigeria Nsukka and Federal College of Education Eha Amufu, Enugu State; Federal College of Cooperative Studies, Oji River; and School of Dental Technology and Therapy. It can be recalled that business education as a discipline was being offered in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Institute of Management and Technology whereas the creation of Enugu State College of Education (Technical) has made the N.C.E programme to be transferred to it from Institute of Management and Technology, thereby relieving the Institute from offering any Nigeria Certificate in Education programme. It is important to understand computer as relates to its applications and purpose.
This is because before going into its influence or importance of business organizations as well as business education, we can look at computer as basically an electronic device that accepts DATA from an input device, performs some kind of manipulations on the data in accordance with pre defined instructions and transfers the manipulated or processed data to an output device for further process or in final printed form such as business document, schedules and management control report (Modum, 1995).
The manipulation in the above meaning of a computer implies calculations, comparison, and logical operations. Changes in computer technology are rapid and of great magnitude which indicated that large number of users is found in education, arts, science and engineering. Be it as it may, computer plays important roles in space travel, navigation, banking, traffic control, meteorology, power, medicine, air travel, industry, printing education, telephone and telex. It most be noted that an organization would use a computer only if by so doing it is more profitable (Carey,1995).
The development of internet technology avails an individual the opportunity to surf through the World Wide Web (www) with speed and ease, thereby communicating with others around the globe. Computers have found application in carrying out business in the private and public sectors especially in government agencies. Computer is profitable as labour saving devices which facilitate office work to ease cumbersome nature of manual-typing, cyclo-cyling and other office work before the introduction of computer to office work. Computer applications help increase productivity in terms automation and control in industrial setting and in office applications. All over the world the impact of computer has been felt, efficiency and effective use of computer technology and application are positive. Yet, the impact of computer is not limited to science, engineering and technology but can be applied in Education.
The basic question is to what extent has computer technology affected teaching and learning in Business Education in Nigeria.
Business education is regarded as a process of instructing person(s) on what happens during business transaction in the office, banks, market and anywhere money changes hands or a type of Education that helps person(s) to learn the facts, acquire the skills, develop abilities to like attitudes useful for success in business situation. The following: book-keeping, accounting, clerical and general office work, distributive, marketing, stenographic and secretarial duties can be performed by a business Educator. Computer technology has developed links which helps the business Educator in carrying out its numerous duties in the field of human endeavour.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Computer technology uses application package, generator and system software which together form computer software. It is complete set of written logical instructions which enables the computer to get solution of a problem. It acts as interface between the computer user and the computer machine itself.
This makes it possible for business Educator(s) to have the opportunity of using computer on the basis of increasing rapid innovation in the educational research work and develop skills necessary to lessen the challenges encountered in secretarial accounting and commercial fields. The use of computer reduces problems in accounting when accounting computer packages are used in analytical process of repairs.
The clear evidence is seen in electronic payments (e-payments) automatic teller machine and as current government polices indicate. Information is easily available on hand held mobile telephone, internets and other communication gadgets. All forms of information helpful to business educators and organizations in carrying out their daily activities are assorted out by information devices namely mobile telephones, internets and other communication gadgets.
Given the forgoing, computer becomes a high stable element of potential success for forward thinking business educators. Computer technology is advancing rapidly on a daily base with new discoveries in the computer system that would continue to lessen the troubles that where encountered by business educator before the invention and commercialization of use of computer.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of study was to know the impact of computer studies on business education thereby finding out;
1. Whether computer studies have brought about changes on business education in Enugu state.
2. Whether the study of computer in higher institutions of learning in Enugu state brought about positive achievement by business educators in organization.
3. Whether it is profitable studying computer in business education in higher institutions of learning in Enugu state.
4. Whether changes that follow computer studies on business education in higher institutions in Enugu state is appreciated by business educators.
5. Whether study of computer has any improvement on business education in higher institution of learning in Enugu state.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is meant to cover the higher institution learning but due to time limit and constrain it only cover one higher institution in the country “ESCET”, which was used as the case study in this research work. And this research work is set to highlight the impact of ‘computer’ studies on the business education among the higher education sector, this study will also highlight the effects of its use and analysis the data that will be gathered from this research work
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will show the importance of computer applications and uses in accounting, book keeping, clerical, general office work, stenography and secretarial jobs as performed by business educators and determine how these have affected positively or otherwise the business educator in higher institutions of learning in Enugu state. The study and uses of computer play prominent role on how business is conducted and transactions made, in today’s business and leaf reduce problems uncounted in day to day business transaction. Computer studies enable the student of business education carry out their work in offices and organization effectively efficiently.