A STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE EVENT MANAGEMENT OF RELIGIOUS PILGRIMAGE HAJJ IN SAUDI ARABIA A SURVEY TO THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE STUDENTS POOR PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Mathematics is intimately connected to daily life and everybody’s life-long planning. Shut out mathematics from daily life and civilisation comes to a standstill. It is in the light of this, that the research seeks to build and elicit among students and teachers the proper appreciation and interest in the value of mathematics to the individual and society. This is done with a particular focus on the senior secondary schools in Idah local government area of Kogi state, Nigeria. The relevant data and information was collected by a teacher questionnaire. It is based on the 4-points Likert scale responses. Simple mean was used to analyse the data. Numerical values 4, 3, 2, and 1 were assigned to the options respectively. The mean value for acceptance is X≥2.5 otherwise reject. For each cluster the acceptance point is 12.5.
The finding of this survey confirmed the fact that; the teacher factor, students’ attitude and commitment, methods of teaching mathematics, use of instructional materials and the school environment are to a great extent valid factors that influences the students poor performance in mathematics in the senior secondary school certificate Examination.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Osokoya (2003) defines Education as a continuous process which the society
establishes to assist its members to understand the heritage of the past and to
participate productively in the future. It is the leading out of the in-born powers and
potentialities of the individuals in the society and the acquisition of skills, aptitudes,
and competencies necessary for self-realisation and for coping with life’s problem.
For Afe (2000), Education is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the
individual into the society to achieve self-realisation, develop national consciousness,
promote unity, and strive for social, economic, political, scientific, cultural and
technological progress. Education in science and mathematics therefore becomes
bedrock and indispensable tools for scientific, technological and economic
advancement in any nation. It gives the nation the capacity to apply technology for
the exploitation of the resources of nature. Such exploitation will depend greatly on
mathematics for laying the foundation for political, governmental, military, civil,
scientific, technological advancement, economic development, socio-cultural and
There are number of questions which need to be answered at this stage. What then is
Mathematics? Why should everybody learn Mathematics? What is the importance of
this subject in life and in school curriculum? What shall be the advantage of devoting
so much effort, time, and money to the teaching of Mathematics? The importance of
mathematics transcends all the definitions and the prosperity of any country
depends on the volume and quality of mathematics offered in its school system. Obe
(1996) conceptualises mathematics as the master and servant of most disciplines and thus, a source of enlightenment and understanding of the universe. He further
opines that without it, the understanding of national problems would be superficial.
Greaber and Weisman (1995) agree that mathematics helps the individual to
understand the environment and to give accurate account of the physical phenomena
around every person. To this end, Setidisho (2001) submits that no other subject
forms a strong binding force among various branches of science as mathematics, and
without it, knowledge of the sciences often remains superficial.
Emphasising the importance of the subject to the society, Robert (1987) stated that in
the United States, mathematics has come to play important roles: in the engineering
of highways, the search for energy, the designing of television sets, the profitable
operation of most business, astronauts flying space-crafts, the study of epidemics,
the navigation of ships at sea all depends on the study of mathematics. Ogunbanjo
(1998) opines that all over the world, sciences has been accepted as a vehicle of
technology, social and economic development. Mathematics is not only basic to these
but is the language of science. In another related study, Igbokwe (2003) highlights
the intricate link of mathematics to science and technology, and contends that
without mathematics there will be no science and without science there will be no
technology, and without technology there will be no modern society. These and many
more reasons are why the Nigerian government believes that the subject should be
taken seriously in our school system; and Nigeria in her march towards technological
development, has not made mathematics a compulsory subject in the curriculum of
the primary and secondary school levels of her educational system (Federal Republic
of Nigeria, 2004) but also as a prerequisite to the study of science courses in her
colleges, polytechnics and universities (JAMB Brochure, 19992-2007).
Shapiro (2000) defines Mathematics as the study of qualitative relations; put simply,
it is the science of structure, order, numbers, space and relationships about counting,
measuring and describing of shapes and objects. It qualifies in its own right as a
science but it is often regarded as a language of and a link between all the sciences.
Soyemi (1999) Mathematics is a body of knowledge that opens up the mind to logical
reasoning, analytical thinking and the ability for creative thinking, deep focusing and
clarity of thought and precision. It is the hub on which all scientific and technological
studies find their bearings. In pure sciences it is the basis and language of study, in
applied sciences and technology it is an indispensable tool of analysis, with the social
sciences it is a scaffold and for the Arts the light that gives consistently and
completeness to its study. Osafehinti (1990) observes that the learning of
mathematics in schools represent first, a basic preparation for adult life and secondly
a gateway to a vast array of career choices. And from the societal perspective,
competence in mathematics is essential for the preparation of an informed citizenry
and for continuous production of highly skilled personnel required for industry,
technology and science. The progress of any nation depends upon her scientific and
technological advancement which can only be built on a sound mathematical
education capable of making the citizens effectively functional in the natural and
applied sciences. The study of Mathematics therefore will go a long way to “equip
students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology” (NPE 2004).
Fakuade (1977) sums up this assertion; for the purposes of economic survival, the
ordinary citizen needs to be able to compare and estimate values of articles,
determine prices of foodstuffs, reckon distances and time, weigh evidence and be
able to sift substances from chaffs. Thus in the complexity of the modern society
everyman requires a certain amount of competence in basic mathematics for
purposes of handling money, prosecuting daily businesses, interpreting
mathematical graphs and charts and thinking logically.
In concluding this section therefore, Mathematics Education must contribute
towards the acquirement of these values: knowledge and skills, intellectual habits
and power, desirable attitudes and ideals that are indispensable tools for a successful
and balanced human existence.
During the last fifty years there had been unprecedented efforts in curriculum
reforms in Mathematics education in Nigeria, from the indigenous innovation of the
Africa Mathematic Programme (AMP) (The Entebbe Mathematics (1961-1969),
through the formation of Nigeria Educational Research Council (NERC) in 1969. In
spite of the efforts made by these bodies, students’ failures rate in mathematics has
been on the increase.
Similarly workshops and conferences have also been held to salvage the situation and
gave a solid foundation to mathematic education, curricula developments and
implementation. To name but a few of such events are: The comparative Education
Study and Adaptation Centre (1976) that took care of the secondary level mathematics syllabus, the Benin Conference (1977) and The National Critique Workshop at Onitsha (1978).
Subsequently The National Mathematics Centre formulated and adopted the following objectives for teaching mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools:
i. To generate interest in mathematics and provide a solid foundation for everyday living.
ii. To develop computational skills
iii. To foster the desire and ability to be accurate to a degree relevant to the problem at hand.
iv. To develop and practice logical and abstract thinking
v. To develop capacity to recognise problems and to solve them with related mathematics knowledge.
vi. To provide necessary mathematical background for further education
vii. To stimulate and encourage creativity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Observations and reports from examining bodies like WAEC, NECO and JAMB revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in mathematics examinations. Despite the laudable efforts at developing an acceptable general mathematics curriculum students’ performance in the subject appears to be declining over the years. To alleviate the situation in the 1989, the National Mathematics Centre was established. Chief amongst its functions include:
1. To encourage and support activities leading to the improvement of the teaching and learning of mathematical sciences at all levels.
2. To tackle national set goals in the development of mathematical sciences.
3. To inject mathematical education to the rarefied area of theoretical mathematics with a view to increasing the number of mathematicians.
Yet in the face of all these efforts the rate and degree of students’ poor performance in senior secondary school examination in mathematics must now be a problem of national concern. This sad situation is aptly described by Adeniyi (1988) who rightly observes, that one’s involvement in the marking of mathematics for the West African
Examinations Council (WAEC) is enough to get anyone sorrowful at the state of
Mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools. Some candidates submit their answer
scripts without writing anything in them. Some candidates merely recopy the
questions, while a high percentage of those who try to write anything at all score
below 40%. This is aptly confirmed with the release of WAEC result for May/June
2011 as quoted in the Leadership newspaper, “the West African Examination Council
(WAEC) released results of the May/June 2011 west African senior secondary
certificate examination, (WASSCE) with an abysmal 30% of the candidates making
credit in English and Mathematics. Details of the results showed that the results of
81, 573 candidates representing 5.29% were withheld.
The question that readily comes to mind is; what are the factors responsible for the
students’ poor performance in mathematics in secondary school examination? This
project will therefore take a survey of the factors responsible for these failures, the
effect on students and the future of our society, the attendant problems and proffer
means of the changing the trend of students’ poor performance in mathematics.
The decline in the numbers of candidates opting to pursue the studies in the sciences has become a matter of considerable societal concern and debate among researchers (Jenkins, 1996). Consequently, the promotion of favourable attitudes towards science and learning of Mathematics is extremely critical and important. However, the concept of poor performance in mathematics is rather ill-defined, often poorly expressed and not well understood