EFFECT OF CHILDHOOD TRAUMA CASE STUDY BARRACK OBAMA’S DREAMS FROM THE FATHER
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Children from birth to age 5 are at a particularly high risk for exposure to potentially traumatic events due to their dependence on parents and caregivers (Lieberman & Van Horn, 2009; National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010). Traumatic events are incidents that involve the threat of bodily injury, death or harm to the physical integrity of self or others and often lead to feelings of terror or helplessness (National Library of Medicine, 2013).
The American Psychological Association (APA) Presidential Task Force on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Trauma in Children and Adolescents (2008) indicated that traumatic events include suicides and other deaths or losses, domestic or sexual violence, community violence, medical trauma, vehicle accidents, war experiences, and natural and manmade disasters. With more than half of young children experiencing a severe stressor, they are especially susceptible to accidents, physical trauma, abuse and neglect, as well as exposure to domestic or community violence (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010).
Over 20 years ago, Straus & Gelles (1990) estimated that three million couples per year engage in severe in-home violence toward each other in the presence of young children. The Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (2003) reported that in 2001, 85% of abuse fatalities occurred among children younger than 6 years of age, and half of all child victims of maltreatment are younger than 7. More recently, the Child Welfare Information Gateway (2014) indicated that 88% of child abuse and neglect fatalities occurred among children 7 years of age and younger. Often, there is an overlap between domestic violence and child physical and sexual abuse (Osofsky, 2003). In addition to domestic violence, young children also are vulnerable to community violence.
Young children birth to age 5 are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of trauma due to rapid developmental growth, dependence on caregivers and limited coping skills. However, despite decades of statistical data, counselors generally have limited knowledge of the impact of traumatic events on younger children in comparison to older children and adolescents (De Young, Kenardy, & Cobham, 2011). Reasons for this disparity in knowledge include a historical resistance to the notion that early childhood mental health is important and concerns about diagnosing young children with mental disorders.
A study conducted by Shahinfar, Fox, and Leavitt (2000) suggested that the majority of young children enrolled in Head Start experienced violence in their communities. Young children also are exposed to traumatic stressors such as accidental burns or falls resulting in hospitalization or death (Grossman, 2000). It is common for children to experience more than one traumatic event (APA Presidential Task Force on PTSD and Trauma in Children and Adolescents, 2008).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Trauma is a widespread, harmful and costly public supports and intervention, people can overcome health problem. It occurs as a result of violence, traumatic experiences. However, most people go abuse, neglect, loss, disaster, war and other without these services and supports. Current research confirms there are an unprecedented number of documented cases of children and adolescents who are currently, or have been, exposed to some form of victimization be it violence, crime, maltreatment, or neglect (Kracke & Hahn, 2008).
These trauma experiences affect the child’s ability to form relationships, regulate levels of arousal and emotional response, respond in a socially appropriate manner, and perform academically (Cook et.al, 2005). The research is compelling that children need adult advocates in education to provide safe havens of learning where children can be secure and accelerate in a learning environment that honors them as individuals. Public schools now find themselves in a place of prevention/ intervention for children who have experienced trauma. Today’s students require educators to use alternative strategies and skills to meet the needs of a diverse population (Cole et al., 2005).
The traumatic events that a child has experienced, or is experiencing, often are unknown to school personnel. Without awareness or a hypothesis that a child has a trauma history, educators may not know that the child’s behavior is due to the possibility of trauma. In order to meet the academic, social, and emotional needs of traumatized students, all school personnel should be given guidance, tools, support, and professional development that are tailored to address the needs of children who have experienced trauma (Tishelman et al., 2010).
Finally several researches have been carried out on the effects of trauma on child mental health and well-being. But not even a single research has been carried out on effect of childhood trauma case study Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine effect of childhood trauma case study of Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. to determine the effect of childhood trauma on Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
2. to determine the factors affecting childhood trauma.
3. to determine the extent to which childhood trauma has affected Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
4. to proffer possible solutions to problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of childhood trauma on Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father?
2. What are the factors affecting childhood trauma?
3. What is the extent to which childhood trauma has affected Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father?
4. What are the possible solutions to problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significance relationship between childhood trauma and Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
H1: There is significance relationship between childhood trauma and Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on effect of childhood trauma will be of immense benefit to the entire public in the sense that it will, enlighten the public on the need why childhood trauma should be discourage among children as this has create fears and so many factors which in turn will affect them positively in life as the grow into adult; a rigorous and systematic manner may also aid in the development and implementation of intervention programmes aimed at dealing with the effects of child trauma exposure.
It also facilitates a better understanding of what the world is like for a child who has been exposed to trauma. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on effect of childhood trauma will focus on the causes of childhood trauma and its effect on Barrack Obama’s dreams from the father.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Trauma refers to a psychological process initiated by an event that confronts an individual with an acute or overwhelming threat, so that the inner agency of the mind loses its ability to control the disorganising effects of the experience, which in turn results in disequilibrium.
This includes exposure to traumatic life events, such as physical abuse or neglect during the childhood development phase.