Format: ms word /  Chapters: 1-5 /  Pages: 56 /  Attributes: primary data analysis, questionnaires



1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The major problem of learning within the conventional school setting is the undue emphasis on verbalism as the sole mode of communication between the teacher and the learners (Bolick 2003) Maduabum, (2000) have proved that words above simply make learning abstract and inactive as it address only one of the major sense of human understanding and communication.

In some cases such as the hearing impaired (Ema, 2001) opined that verbalism has on place in their programmes. Instructional materials are highly important in teaching especially for in experienced teachers.

Instructional materials according to Faurant (1975) are materials used by a teacher and which enable students understand the teacher or that enable student assimilate what is being put across to them.

Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching they need materials for background information on the subject they are teaching young teachers usually have not built up their experience when ever they enter to the field.

Teacher often use instructional materials for lesson planning these materials are also needed by teachers  to assess the knowledge of their students (Sotayo 2010).

People learn in different ways. Some people are extra ordinary good at retraining information fed to them orally (i.e. via a lecture) and other absorbs and retrain a great deal of information that they have read others need visual stimulants or cues to facilitate learning.

Repetition works for a lot of people as well. Most people however required a combination of the above method which can encompass audio visual materials books and even practical application are an excellent aid for assuring that students have the best possible opportunity to retain the information being given to them.

With the advancement in knowledge and proliferation of a wide variety of flip chart there have been improvement imports  on our scope of knowledge attitude and ways of perception the impact according to (Emma, 2001) is evident in the manner the school and scientists respond to local and international issue communication to them through the various media.

It therefore becomes necessary for educationist especially teachers to realized these potentials and explore them. However, from observation the use of flip chart in most secondary schools especially in teaching and learning of integrated science most especially sense organ in fast becoming a thing of the past. The use of this flip chart in some of those  schools are only noticeable when teachers trainees go for the teaching practice (TP) the student often look forward with eagerness’ to having trainees on teaching practice around because they often used  flip chart most especially in teaching science and mathematics.

This study aim to look at the ways the flip chart imparts the academic achievement of students? In essence how effective is the flip chart in teaching of the topic sense organ.


The world as a whole and developing countries in particular are continuously faced with immense educational problems which the conventional classroom setting and learning methods cannot be cope with. Hence problem of this study is to determine the need to explore how flip chart can enhance teaching and learning of integrated science most especially sense organs.

1.3              PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of flip chart in teaching and learning of social studies in some selected Secondary School in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State.

This would be done by examining the importance of flip chart in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study is aimed at providing answers to the following questions:

i.                    To what extent do teachers use flip chart?

ii.                  Do the varieties in use of flip chart have any impact on the academic performance of student in teaching and learning of sense organs?

iii.                What are the factors that determine the types of flip chart?

iv.                Why do teacher need to use flip charts?

v.                  What types of instructional materials are used in teaching the topic sense organ?

vi.                What is the effect of flip chart on student learning?