PRIVATIZATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION AND THE POOR IN OYO STATE
The purpose of this study is to find out the assertion of the privatization of secondary education and the poor in Oyo State and the children of low economic status attend the private and public secondary schools.
Therefore, as a determinant of choice between private and public secondary school in Ibarapa East Local Government Area of Oyo State. It is descriptive survey research.
Two sets of self designed questionnaire by the researcher was used. 150 copies of one set was used for the student randomly selected and 50 copies of the other set was used for the randomly selected public and private schools. The following hypotheses were tested using simple percentage t-test.
Based on the research problems, the following hypotheses were tested.
- There was no significant association between choice of school of secondary education and income distribution in Oyo State.
- There was no significant association between choice of school and parents occupation.
- There was no significant relationship between choice of private school and parent’s education.
- There was no significant association between choice of private school and family size.
The result shows a significant difference in the privatization of secondary school in Oyo state and the parent’s choice of private and public school.
Also, there exists a significant association between parents’ occupation and choice of school for their children.
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Anthony Giddens (1993) and Longe (1981), Olaniyan (1995) stated the beginning of western Education in Nigeria in September 1842, the first set of missionaries which led by Reverend Thomas Freeman and Mr. and Mrs. Craft of the Westleyansect arrived and settled at Badagry, and established the first school ever inform of “Sunday school” later others missionaries arrived such as the CATHOLIC MISSION e.t.c.
However, these missionaries established series of schools whose curriculum design were a replied of their respective countries. This can be regarded as private involvement in education in Nigeria
During this period schools had a splendid growth and development. Between 1889 to 1902, the colonial government then started showing interest in taking over the administration of these schools and established more.
In this wise, the government appoints “Inspectors Education” in which HENRYCAR a Nigerian was fortunate to be appointed as a “Sub-Inspector of Education” in the colony of Lagos. It is no gain saying that, during the period of 1889 to 1905, these observations could be made from the relentless efforts of the then colonial government to improve the status of education in Nigeria. Privatization of education is sometimes described as a form of decentralization given that it may involve the transfer of decision making authority responsibility and tasks from higher to lower organization levels or between organizations which is general definition of decentralization.
Privatization is often categorized into two ideal types first, involving demand-side-financing second, involving reforms to the educational supply-side through the rapid growth of private schools rather than through reforms to the education.
However, privatization has been noted either explicitly or implicitly in the literature where responsibility for education have been transferred to the private education, through the rapid growth of private schools rather than the reforms. Then in (Oyo State of Nigeria), privatization of secondary education. Have Mushroomed due to the poor quality government secondary schools, particularly in urban and peri-urban areas.
Significantly, the low quality of government secondary education for the poor is often reported as a major reason for the Mushrooming of privatization education. If poor parents support private education, this carries a real danger of undermining the government schooling system. In Oyo State of Nigeria private schools are privately managed and privately funded, we focused on designated ‘poor’ area only; In the District of Ibadan, Ibarapa, Okeogun we selected three (out of 33 of the poorest zones, we focused only on schools in the notified slums according to the latest census and municipal documents which defined as areas with lack of amenities such as proper sanitation and roads, water and electricity supply.
In Nigeria, we looked at Ibadan district, surrounding the capital of Oyo State, classified as a low-income, peri-urban area, about 20% of population of 3,000.000 lives below the poverty line, while 60% live on the poverty line.
Nigeria includes poor farming villages along the farms land while most of the district lacks basic social amenities such as portable water, sewage system, electricity and paved road.
This invariably limits the number of parents that can afford to send their children to such private secondary schools. In the light of this a greater percentage of parents in the local government area send their children to public secondary schools where they pay little or no tuition or school fees.
In some other instance, parents of low middle with the desire qualitative education for their children sometimes, may not have the money at hand but sought other means to finance their wards education. The poor of it is to “borrow and payback later” this they do in order to sponsor their children to private secondary schools even before an increase was affected on the general monthly pay of civil servants.
Again, there are some parents of low standard in Oyo State, some farmers and small scale business men who are fortunate to have financial ability but do not send their children to secondary schools because of their lack of knowledge and value of education.
Such most times spend their money in marrying more wives, having large family size and spending it on social ceremonies such as funeral of in law rather than on their children’s education.
This research work is meant therefore to serve as value judgment in privatization of secondary education and the poor in Oyo state as well meant to find out the actual effect of parental efforts.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In this research work the researcher attempts to investigate the effects of parental on privatization of secondary education and poor as determinant of their choice of schools to their children in Oyo State.
Precisely, the questions which are bordering the mind of the researcher are:
1. Is there any relationship between the academic achievement of parents and the choice of school for their children?
2. Is there any relationship between the choice of schools for their children and the parents’ occupation?
3. Is there any relationship between the choice of schools for children and the size of the family in term of money?
4. Is there any relationship between the change fees that making them out of reach of the poorest of the poor parents?
5. Is there any finding of a recent research project exploring private schools for the poor in Oyo State?
1.3 Purpose of Study
The central focus of this study is to attempt a critical look
1. The privatization of secondary education and the poor in Oyo State and the children of parents of low economic status attend the private secondary schools
2. Only the children of high economic status attend private secondary school
3. The parents ability and economic status is a determinant of children’s choice by attend private secondary schools
1.4 Research Hypothesis
Based on the research problems, the following hypotheses were tested;
1. Ho:- There is no significant difference in the choice of secondary education and income distribution in Oyo state.
2. Ho: There is no significant association between choice of school and parents occupation.
3. Ho: There is no significant relationship between choice of private school and parent’s education
4. Ho: There is no significant association between choice of private school and family size.
1.5 Significant of the Study
With the increasing awareness of the necessity of education to the overall development of the country come about the establishment of private secondary schools with aim of providing a more qualitative education.
The significance of this study therefore cannot be over emphasized. This in the sense that it will assist parents in making good and profitable choice of school for their children. It will as well help the parents to know area in which their private secondary education is either directly or indirectly affecting the academic performance of their children.
The outcome of this study will no mean aid the children in the private secondary schools education to discern some of the factors that are responsible for their poor academic performance which make it difficult if not impossible to complete with their counterpart in the public secondary schools education. It is another significant aspect that this research work will be of use to the clearer glimpse of what its responsibilities are towards educational improvement.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to both private and public secondary schools in Ibarapa East Local Government Area of Oyo State. And the study will cover the aspect of the poor and prove low benefit it is. Then is that of financial constraint due to the country’s economic depression and the effect.
For economic and logistical reason we have to deal with sample rather than the entire population.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Privatization: This is sometimes described as transfer state owned assets to private hands to ensure better service delivery.
Education: This is described as knowledge and abilities, development of character and mental powers, resulting from such training.
Secondary: This is means of coming after less important than, what is first
Poor: This is simply means i.e. not having and not able to get the necessaries of life.
Private School: is regarded as an organization where by one person or group of persons not people in general having no official position not holding any public office and not a member of the government. And according to the Olaniyan A.A (1995) explained that the private school is a status where majority finance by private individuals through the payment if their wards or children fees.