SOURCES AND USAGE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION AMONG NOUN STUDENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In recent decades, HIV/AIDS has become a topical issue in Nigeria. Ever since the first case of AIDS was registered in 1982, the epidemic has continued to be on increase. For instance, an estimated 5.1% - 5.4% of the population has been infected with HIV/AIDS by 1999 (Penchard et al, 2002) and by 2006, 6.1 millions of 140 millions population is living with HIV/AIDS. The situation becomes worrisome as the number of people with the disease is expected to grow significantly by the end of 2010 (ICI. 2002). Despite the pandemic nature of HIV/AIDS, it was not until 2000 that the Nigerian government recognised HIV/AIDS as a major health problem (FRN, 2000). Unfortunately, this was not immediately matched with intensified campaign on HIV/AIDS by governments at all level. However, the recent happenings indicate government sudden interest in fighting the scourge. Government mounted aggressive campaign in the media and posted billboards in cities and highways, sensitising on the dangers of the disease, modes of transmission and prevention. There have also been responses from nongovernmental organisations in this campaign. Despite these concerted efforts by government and non- governmental organisations to address the problem, it is disheartening to note that the rate of infection is still very high. In Nigeria, as in other countries of the world, youths are the most vulnerable since they are the most sexually active population and have shown to have multiple sex (Okpani and Okpani, 2000, Ibe and Ibe,2003, Juarex and Martin,2006: Demilson, 2008). Current statistics on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria provide evidences that young people within the age bracket of undergraduates are the high risk group (UNAIDS, 2000).
The reasons that have been adduced to number of factors which include lack of communication between parents and child about sexually; high level of illicit sexual; high incidence of campus prostitution, poverty or hash economic conditions among other factors (Obinna,2005, Uzokwe,2008) With the conception of high prevalence of rate of HIV/AIDS among students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, one is left wondering if the students are aware of the disease and if various campaigns on HIV/AIDS have any impact on them. Nigeria tertiary institutions present a situation whereby everybody is aware of the deadly virus HIV/AIDS (Omoregie, 2002; Adedimeji, 2003) but they all seem not to care. Students give in easily to peer pressure, physical attractiveness etc. to affect their sexual behaviour. HIV/AIDS has become one of the most devastating diseases humanity has ever faced. It has become a major public health concern with about half of new infections occurring in young people Sub-Saharan Africa, which has just over 10% of the world’s population, remains the most seriously affected region. The impact of HIV/AIDS has caused much consternation among policy-makers as it threatens to erode socio-economic through its associated increase in morbidity and mortality of people in the productive age group A more serious challenge today, is the growing infection rates among the adolescents in subSaharan Africa. Research has shown that the highest group found to be infected with the virus is the age group 15 to 24.
This adolescent high-risk group accounts for 60 percent of all new infections in many countries . Transactional sex, very common among young adults in Africa has been identified as one of the critical pathways for the transfer of the virus in Africa It is not surprising that sexual intercourse has become the most predominant mode of transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for approximately 90% of all infections . Young people are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection because of the physical, psychological, social and economic attributes of adolescence Young adults are also at risk as a result of high risky sexual behaviours, attitudes, and constraints of the societies in which they grow up8 . Qualitative and quantitative studies conducted in Ghana suggest that the lifestyles of university students are placing them at risk of contracting the HIV. Moreover peer pressure to obtain luxury items, such as expensive clothing, jewellery, fashionable hairstyles, accessories, and makeup, motivates young women to engage in transactional sex.
It has also been demonstrated that increased knowledge about AIDS is not a predictor for behavioural change, although knowledge about the disease is a prerequisite for change. Knowledge of HIV and other STIs have been lacking among adolescents in Ghana, with sparse and limited literature in this area as previous studies conducted have focused on public universities with little or no data on private university students. According to the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey (GDHS) 98% of women and 99% of men were aware of HIV in Ghana. However, this has not translated into comprehensive knowledge and safe sexual behaviour as only 25% of females and 33% of males aged 15 - 24 years had comprehensive knowledge of HIV1 . This has health implications for propagation of the HIV/AJDS disease prevention and policy formulation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Hiv/Aids is one of the most deadly disease that has no medical remedy(cure) for now but the level at which some people neglect the facts or information that needs to be known becomes very pathetic to the researcher cause they might be ignorantly driving themselves to their early grave. Lack of proper information might be a challenge facing noun students. this is because even the nursing mothers in the rural areas that are infected which gave birth at homes might not be exposed to helping information that can help them and their babies. So many at times young people (students) see the disease of HIV/AIDS as just “not real” even when they have been thought on the disease, its effect and its preventive measure.
Finally, several research has been carried out on the HIV/AIDS but not even a single research has been carried out on sources and usage of HIV/AIDS information among noun students.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students. Other specific objectives of the study includes;
1. to determine the relationship between sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students.
2. to determine the factors affecting sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students.
3. to investigate the effect of sources and usage of Hiv/Aids among noun students.
4. to investigate the extent to which sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information has affected noun students.
5. to proffer possible solutions to problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students?
2. What are the factors affecting sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students?
3. What is the effect of sources and usage of Hiv/Aids among noun students?
4. What is the extent to which sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information has affected noun students?
5. What are the possible solutions to problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant difference between sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students.
H1: : There is a significant difference between sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information among noun students will be of immense benefit to the entire students of noun, in the sense that it will educate them on how to safeguard themselves against this deadly disease to avoid pre-mature death, it will also enable government to make sex education compulsory for all students in other to create awareness concerning the virus. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on sources and usage of Hiv/Aids information is limited to noun students.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor.
Is a virus that attacks immune cells called CD-4 cells, which are a subset of T cells.