TEACHER’S MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is a process, formal or informal which enlightens, build and develop both the body and mind and consequently using all available resource in the most prudent way to make the educated man most useful to himself the society and the nation at large (Uka 2005) in essence education is seen as a mean of rearing and nurturing the individual to grow and acquire skill, knowledge attitude and valve which effectives initiate him into his culture. As he grows through life ,such and individual employs the use of his head, his heart and his hand to think, to love, to work, and develop himself fully for his own good and that of his society. He thus recognized as a good citizen. This mean that education performs important function in any society whether simple or complex the function which is according to Akinade (2006) is political, economical, and social and cultural. The educational institution is regarded as a school and a miniature of the society. Therefore, the curriculum of the formal education is developed to cater for the society need in all ramifications within which the education is taking place that is the political, economic, social and cultural need of the society will be incorporated in the educational curriculum of the society.
Bringing this nearer home, the western education was brought to Nigeria by the Christian missionaries in 1984.Their aim then for introducing education in Nigeria could be regarded as essentially evangelistic .Then, the colonial government took over the control of education from the Christian missionaries with the aim of making the colonial administration successful in Nigeria. However , after independence in 1960, the colonial perspectives philosophy and objectives of Nigerian education changed drastically and then tailored along the needs of Nigeria society .Hence Nigeria education now aims at achieving the five main national objective as stated in the second National Development Plan and National Policy on Education (1989) which are the building of ,
- A free and democratic society.
- A just and egalitarian society.
- A united strong and self-reliant nation.
- A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.
(National policy on education 1998)
In realizing the above stated national objective the educational aims and objective will be design as follows,
- The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.
- The inculcation of the right types of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society.
- The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around and
- The acquisition of appropriate skill, abilities and competencies both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society. (N.P.C.1998 Page 7-8).
In Nigeria society education is saddled with the task of national development in all it ramification social, economic political and cultural. Therefore the Nigerian society makes larger input into its educational system .Such input include human resources that is teaching and non-teaching staff, money ,the student, buildings ,books, equipment and all other necessary materials resources all of which are properly organized to process the student so as to bring about the intended changes in the behavior of the student. In a more lucid form, we are to agree that society makes input into educational system in terms of students ,teaching staff ,non teaching staff ,financial faculties, equipment ,content all of which are processed to produce output which are the educated school leavers that are better trained and acquired to be useful to themselves and the society with right values ,attitudes and skills.
For educational goals to be achieved there should be certain groups of people in the society who are expected to play their roles in educating the citizens and they include ,the government ,parents, teachers, schools and students respectively. Inspire of shifts the blame of the low standard of education only on the teachers and to avoid this blame, teachers are to be committed to their work, serve as a model to professionally inclined.
In this regard, some post researchers and psychologist like Abraham Maslow, Meclelland and Murray has shown that motivation is crucial in human life and that it is capable of affecting the standard of education in schools. There are dominant factors which explains human behavior in a particular circumstance .These are describe a “Motives” .Motives are the effective incitement to nation that lies behind our act and behind the show of things .As explained that there is motive behind any behavior, hence motives direct our action .This is where it is pertinent for the society that is the government and parents to understand teachers motives and direst these to desirable end.
Motivation, according to many psychologists is a goal and directed “behavior”. It is a phenomenon that gives reasons or capable of giving reasons for the emission of a particular behavior. Therefore, anything that initiates or urges activity whether external or internal is motivating.
Motivation arouses out of urge or acquired interest and affects. Individual’s thoughts emotions and behaviors (Blair1986) in education precisely, teachers need to be motivated by both the government and the parents. That is, the government and the parent role are to provide those things that would encourage the teachers to teach what should teach.
Teacher is a person who imparts knowledge for a living as a profession. Also, a teacher is a person specially prepared to exercise the profession of teaching (Olatola 1991).Teacher in another word is a person who engages in developing learners psychomotor, cognitive and effective in formal school system (Olawale 2001) more so, teacher is a person who has undergone approved professional training in education at appropriate level capable of imparting knowledge, attitude and skills to the learners. Which teaching is a systematic rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, attitude and skill in accordance with professional principles?
Teaching and motivation are inseparable in the educational institution because it makes the learners to show much interest in the teaching and learning activities.
In any society, the productivity of the teaching is the concern of different groups of people in the government the parents, school and the learners. All these groups, in one way or the other are capable of motivating teachers to teach.
The government could motivate the teachers by providing educational facilities, payment of teachers salaries adequately given teachers promotion as at when due. Organizing work shop seminars and in-service training for the teacher so as to upgrade their knowledge in order to complete with their counter part in other nation at the global level along the same line parents could motivate the teacher by equipping their children with both the reading and writing materials and by assisting their children educationally so as to pave way for effective teaching and learning processes in the school system .Also they should finance and provide for their children’s need. Besides school too is a motivating factor should provide the physical facilities, development of library and laboratories, congenial and conducive environment and discipline.
Meanwhile it is not only the government the parents and the school that can motivate the teachers, the student too can also motivate their teachers by reading their books and doing their assignment when given, this arouse the interest of the teachers in other to discharge their duties accordingly.
As a result of the various motivational strategies employed by the government, parents and learners to promote effective teaching and learning in our secondary schools, this study therefore examines the extent to which the motivation promotes teachers productivity.
It was discovered that there is an energizing “force” that includes and dictates ones behavior towards a given task .It compels teachers to perform task to meet predetermined standard .The main characteristics are that they are sustain, goal and arouse as a result of a need that is feet .The motivational factors are those that induce one to perform better in teaching condition. They may be tangible and non tangible incentive such as functional benefit, promotion desirable teaching condition, leadership styles.
Investigation has demonstrated that when teachers are given necessary motivation they are required to display maximum wiliness in the discharge of their duty. This enhances teacher’s ability to increase the quality Of production and create an atmosphere where everyone can put their book.
In short, there is absent of drive and incentive in teaching profession in any school where motivation is absent the entire teachers productivity will be at its lowest where as management expect a very high degree of productivity from the teachers in order to maintain high academic performance and achieve the goal of school as an institution the managers of school must strive to get productivity from their teachers lerant kind and empathy to teachers .It is my candid opinion that government should subject (motivation) a serious thought ,as there is no gain saying the fact that people are the pilot on which any school ,hence much attention to teachers motivation today.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The outcry about the low standard of education in our secondary schools was echoed by Akintola (2003) when he stressed that the emerging pattern in Nigeria education seems to be worse than ever before, because of lack of adequate motivation to the teachers. Inadequate provisions of both reading and writing materials for the students by the parents are the causative factors responsible for the low performance in schools. And also, the parent failed to check the student work and giving more helping hand in their work at home. Besides, one other salient causative factor reducing the standard of education ,mostly in our secondary school is the lack of government motivation to teachers area of salaries ,delay in promotion and inability of the government in organizing workshop and seminars’ for the teachers.
Therefore, to upgrade the standard of education the government, parents and the student should strive to give the necessary incentive that would stimulate the teacher’s motives towards teaching.
1.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis are proposed
1. There is no significant difference in teaching performance of teachers if the government provides or does not provide physical facilities in schools.
2. There are no significant differences in teachers attitude towards teaching whether motivated or not.
3. There is no significant difference in teacher’s attitude towards teaching whether their salaries are paid or not.
4. There is no significant difference in teacher’s attitude towards teaching whether their promotion were delayed or not.
5. There is no significant difference in teacher’s attitude towards teaching whether workshop were organize for the teacher or not.
1.3 PURPPOSE OF THE STUDY
The society that is, the government, parent, schools and learners have been serving as motivational factor to teaching in our secondary school. Then to ascertain the extent and the level of motivation given to teachers ,this study attempt to look at the situation in some selected secondary schools in Ijebu – Ode local government area in Ogun state Therefore, the extent of the effectiveness of motivation of the teachers in those schools in the subject in the subject of these research work. Particularly the study sets out to;
- Investigate the motivational factors of teachers in those schools.
- Examine the motivational factors that contribute more to the productive of teachers.
- Identify the motivational strategies that receive the highest attention.
- Find out the strategies that receive least attention.
- Suggest other ways of motivating teachers toward teaching.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will help the society to a great a extent in realizing the purpose they wish teaching to serve.
The society that is ,the government ,parents and learners are regarded as the motivational factors of teachers this research work will make the three groups of people to realize there motivational factors or the role expected of them.
More so, this research would expose to the government various motivational strategies they could apply that will facilitate teaching the strategies such as distribution of instructional materials , regular paying of teachers salaries, given promotion to teachers when dues ,given in-service training. The research work would make the government to realize the motivation that teachers lack and the effectiveness of those that are provided so as to rectify the situation for improvement in the teaching profession. Beside, it is the aim of this work to enlighten the parent also of their parental roles in promoting the teaching effectiveness of teachers. Along the same line this research would feed the parents back on the effectiveness of the various strategies they use to motivate the teachers and to encourage them better.
Essentially, the research would avert the government, parent and learners making joint effort to motivate teacher and effect improvement in the productivity.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work examined motivation as a correlate of teacher’s productivity and it intends to cover five secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode local government area of Ogun State.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation:-refers to the stimulation of workers, the driving force behind any behaviour, especially something that involves hard work and effort.
Teacher:-is a person who had undergone approved professional training in education at appropriate level capable of imparting knowledge attitudes and skill to the learners.
Teaching: - is a systematic national and organized process of transmitting knowledge attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principle.
Correlate:-refers to having a mutual relation with something
Productivity: -refers to the ability of the teacher to discharge duties effectively and efficiently.
Effectiveness: - it is the ability to put motivation into proper usage .Also, it is the ways of putting things into proper action in education industries.
Efficiency:-is the way of using the available resources to maximize effective productivity in the educational setting in order to improve the quality of instruction.