THE EFFECT OF E-LEARNING ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
This study primarily focus on how effective the use of E-learning has been on higher education in Nigeria over the years using Tai Solarin University of Education as the case study. From the literature reviewed, it shows that use of these ICT tools have transformed learning and impacted positively on learners and staffs in developed countries and continue to do so. The main research method used for the study was survey and questionnaire was administered for 200 students across the four colleges of the University. The data collected were analyzed using Chi Square a tool in SPSS. The result shows that E-learning has a positive effect on higher education in Nigeria both to students and even to the lecturers and has also improved the standard of education in higher institutions. Students should possess technical skill to use e-learning resources, a well -equipped e-learning support center should be made available to assist students’ IT needs to effectively use e-learning.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming an integral part of Education in many parts of the globe. Nigeria is not left behind as ICT gradually finds its way onto the Educational systems despite chronic limitations brought about by economic disadvantages. Fundamentally, education is a discipline like any other; it is a branch of human knowledge which is basically concerned with getting the young in the society prepared when they come of age. According to Gbamanja, (1989 : 131), education is a process, which seeks to change the behavior of a learner. Overall, behaviorist view education as the process of changing the behavioral pattern of people. Ever since ancient times people have devised various techniques for communicating their thoughts, needs and desires to others. In early civilized times, people tend to congratulate in geographically localized cluster in which communication were adequately achieved through speech and written messages. As civilization spread over larger geographical areas, a variety of long - distance communication methods were tried such as smoke signals, carrier pigeons etc. one of the earliest known optical links, was the use of fire signal by Greeks in the eight century B.C. for sending alarms, calls for help, or announcement of certain events.
However, According to (Olojo, Adewunmi&Ajisola, 2012) E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners’ interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher.
Moreover, the world is moving at an unimaginable speed in the area of information use and dissemination. According to Olaniyi (2006), with the use of Information technology, knowledge and information can be transferred and cross-fertilized in real time. Hence, the need to pay attention to the way information technology has changed the educational sector through the internet. E-learning has been described as one of the educational challenges of the modern age about which progressive academic institutions must make bold efforts to excel and compete favorably in the global market where education is a commodity.
Also, E-learning has become a new paradigm and a new philosophy in library services as well as educational sector with a mission to serve as a development platform for present-day society based on knowledge. E-Learning can be describe as all forms of electronic supported learning and teaching, which are procedural in character and aim to effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice and knowledge of the learner. Information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.
Today, these communication systems have become an integral part of everyday life with circuits spanning the entire world carrying voice, text, pictures and many other types of information. As recent advances integrated circuits to technology have allowed computers to become recognized, less expensive and widely available for all and sundry.
However, Horton (2005) defined E-learning as the use of internet and digital technologies to create experiences that educate our fellow human beings. E-learning is essentially the computer and network enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. It refers to the use of electronic applications and processes to learn. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It is used by the educational Institutions to enhance and support the class room teaching and offering courses to a larger population of learners across the Globe. It can be self-paced or instructor led and includes media in the form of text, images, animations, streaming video and audio.
E-learning has the potential to revolutionize the way we teach and how we learn (DfES, 2003). Advances in ICT have really revolutionized the way we teach and how we learn in many ways; for instance, increasing access to post-secondary instruction, improving the availability of educational resources, and facilitating meaningful interaction among learners. Harnessing the power of ICT has become a critical strategy among institutions eager to offer an affordable, efficient, and flexible learning environment for rapidly growing and diverse communities of learners. Many scholars have viewed distance and online education as alternative, sometimes inferior, education for individuals with limited access to traditional higher education institutions (HEIs) or those not committed to deep learning (Rich, M. 2008). Today, technology enhanced learning, including distance and online instruction, is recognized as a viable tool necessary for preparing citizens to participate in the technologically driven global environment. A multidisciplinary approach to online pedagogical research recognizes the value of technology enhanced teaching and learning as critical in the mix of diverse strategies. Its centrality in the global marketplace has been enhanced by a new culture shared by many educators. A culture diametrically opposed to elicit views of education as a privilege.
E-learning has been used very effectively in university teaching for enhancing the traditional forms of teaching and administration. Students on many courses in many universities now find they have web access to the lecture notes and selected digital resources in support of their study, they have personalized web environments in which they can join discussion forums with their class or group, and this new kind of access gives them much greater flexibility of study.
Therefore, with the proliferation of the various e-learning technologies in universities in Nigeria, it is necessary to delve into issues of the effects and impact of this technology on higher education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Technology integration to support education has been underway for many years. E-learning is not a new phenomenon in promoting education in some parts of world. Presently, institutions in Nigeria are using it to promote distance education and it is integrated with the conventional classroom teaching. E-learning can be viewed as computer assisted learning and comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching (Olojo, Adewumi and Ajisola, 2012).
Therefore, it is not out of place to look in depthly into how the introduction of E- learning has affected either positively or negatively higher education in Nigeria.
Presently, Tai Solarin University of education (TASUED) as an institution among several other universities has also imbibed the use of e-learning for teaching- learning process whereby, students interact with lecturers online, learn online, and write examinations online but it is yet at the primary stage.
However, this research will delve into how effective the introduction of e-learning has been in the university over the years.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study hopes to look at how beneficial or damaging is the introduction of e-learning to higher education in Nigeria streamlining our study to TASUED.
i. Examine the effect of e-learning on higher educational system in Nigeria.
ii. The implications of the implementation of e- learning to both students and lecturers.
iii. To examine the potential of e-learning alongside conventional classroom learning and the impact the integration of the two can have on student’s academic performance.
iv. To investigate the availability and use of ICT resource in TASUED.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the above stated objectives, this study will answer the following research questions:
· What are the effects of ICT facilities on the educational system in the Nigeria?
· Is there any effect of the usage of e-learning technologies on educational system in Nigeria?
· What are the perceptions of students towards the usage of e-learning in university?
· What are the effects of internet on the educational system in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H01This is no significant relationship between E-learning and higher educational system in Nigeria.
H02There is no significant between relationship usage of computers and educational system in Nigeria.
H03There is no significant relationship between use of internet and educational system in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Higher educational institutions are increasingly moving toward the use of the Internet for delivery of their courses, both on campus and at a distance. TASUED being one of them is not left out of the equation. So, studying the effect of this technology on student and lecturers in these institutions will put forward the kind of effects it has on higher education maybe positive or negative.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research will relatively focus on the effects that the introduction of e-learning into higher education could possibly have on students and lecturers alike. And also seek to propose to a synergy between the face-to-face teaching and e-learning.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This project focuses on the effects that e-learning technology has on students and lecturers in higher institution of learning in Ogun state. Though, the research supposed to cover all the universities in the state but it has been stream line to just one of the universities(Tai solarin university of education, Ijagun, Ijebu-ode.) has been chosen as a case study due to some factors like time constraint, financial constraint and so many other factors.