THE IMPACT OF SEX EDUCATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN MUSHIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF LAGOS STATE
The study examined the impact of sex education in the Junior Secondary School in Mushin Local Government, Lagos.
Survey design was employed for the study and questionnaire was used to gather useful information for the respondents in the sampled schools.
Random sampling technique was adopted to select five schools and fifty respondents that respond to the items on the questionnaire.
The data collected were processed and analyzed using simple percentage
The findings revealed that culture, lifestyles, ignorance, poverty and traditional believe are the factors responsible for indiscriminate sex common among the youths of the local government.
The introduction of the sex education will serve as the corrective measure for the damage sexual intercourse has cost the area.
1.1 Background to the Problem
The researcher intends to assess the roles of Social studies teacher in the introduction of sex education to Junior Secondary School Students in selected Local Government Area of Lagos state.
It is fact that when parents send their children to school, they have something in mind. An average Nigeria parent regards education of his child as a means to and end and not an end itself. This implies that education is viewed in term of the economic benefit to be derived from it. The aim of an average Nigeria parent in sending his child to school is probably nothing other than to enable him to be useful to himself, his family and the community at large. Education is universally acknowledged as a form of investment which can contribute immensely to Nations future economic growth and National development. Education is the Weapon to battle against ignorance, diseases, malnutrition, unemployment, superstitions, political instability and tribalism. It has always been observed that a lot of Junior Secondary School students most especially female students drop out of the school without finishing their secondary school education programme because of unwanted pregnancy and lack of knowledge of sex education. Social studies teacher needs to educate her student by example. He should see himself as the second parent. The Social studies teacher need to let the students know that puberty is brought about by the activity of the sense organs. It is therefore necessary to examine their organs their appendages and their biological and social significance. Sex education is no doubt a very vital issue that is causing controversy all over the world today. Sex education is being looked at from different angles.
These are the agreement on the name itself, the necessary for it teaching in the schools, it form in the school curriculum, the person to teach it and the scope. Human sexuality begins at birth with the sexes of the baby. A number of experiences and factor combined to form the child gender identity.
They are cultural definition of gender, parent’s biological gender, sexual preferences and sexual experiences. A child is usually programmed for role identification through selected clothing and toys, teaching confrontations and parental models.
The masculine or feminine identification given us at birth is reinforced through childhood and adolescence for example when a little girl behaves well she will be commenced with the following remark “how graceful or what a great lady you are”.
Apart from biological roles of men and women, all other meanings and subtle actions, we associate with, either see or learned are reinforced by the society. Furthermore, our female students being blind folded by the so-called social life do not recognize the importance of their health and thereby careless about their reproductive system. The enjoyments so derived do not allow them to care about what can be the outcome. They are ready to forget health at the expense of sex, which they count to be the best way of enjoying life.
In the old days, Nigeria tradition normally keep their youth in complete ignorance of sexual matter in order to prevent sexual immorality among the youth at that time, it is common to find a bride groom ignorant of the sex until their marriage night. The first night was the connection between the past and the future.
Any would-be-wife whose virginity was not intact that night and approved by the husband would mean the end of the marriage.
According to Denden (1963) “Sex Education can be described as a character education consisting of instruction to develop, understanding of the physical, mental, emotional, social economics and psychological phase of human relationship as they affect male and female relationship. Ilnoise (1971) defined Sex Education as co-operate effect by home, school, church and community to provide selected learning experience and guidance for young people concerning the needs, interest, problems and goals that arise of human psycho-sexual development. Primarily as related to love, marriage parenthood and family life.
Gonden (1974) also defined sex education as a life-long process that begins in the home and continues in the school, the media and the community. It remains a learning experience phenomenon throughout the life cycle. No one source has a monopoly on it, nor can parents claim exclusive right on it, if parents will want to be the only sex educator to their children, they should have to prevent them from going to any public schools, having any friends watching television or reading virtually anything including the bible. Nigeria societies are greatly being influenced by western culture. As the traditional authority of the family, the community, the church and the school seem to be declining, individual freedom or decision and action in relation to male and female association is fast increasing.
This is manifested in the parent youths especially the units concerned in this study who regards sex as a way of establishing identify and a form of expressing love. They make themselves accessible to various stages of love making on television, in newspaper and magazine stories and advertisement. The exposure of the students to sophisticated western influence pave ways for sex abuse in the country. Infact, Sexually transmitted diseases like Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is now a major global public health problem among the youths. Since most students in Junior Secondary Schools are entering adolescent age and most are adolescents, it is necessary to guide them during the period of “storm and stress”..
They are to prepare for the stage and get well occupied with what they are to expect as regard the changes in their body so as to be able to adjust effectively. Again sex education is necessary for the youths in order to help cut cases of unwanted pregnancies. It is observed that teenage pregnancies are so rampant among the teenagers nowadays the large percentages of which are secondary school students.
Ogunsola (1988), Sex Education has been left alone right from the grassroots to these young starts from parents, religious bodies, mass media have abandoned their duties in giving sex education to these children. Most media houses only shout on increasing moral decadence and cases of Juvenile delinquency, adolescence pregnancies and cases of babies dumped into gutters and rivers without having contributions in curbing this ugly act. Likewise, religious organizations are too pre-occupied with other activities than giving full and correct information about sex (Akenmolaba, 1985). The prevailing situation prompted the introduction of sex education in the Junior Secondary School in Mushin Local Government, Lagos State. Hence, the study will help to prepare the females ones for marital life resulting in lasting marriage.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to an outline to clinic personnel, parents and teachers by the international Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, the following are the changes that take place in girls when reaching maturity stage:
1. The commencement of monthly period menstruation, the enlargement of breast and growth of hair around and above the opening of the female sex organ, (the public hair) the widening of the pelvic borne, the enlargement and ripening of the inner reproductive organ for reproduction i.e the uterus, ovaries and the oviduct.
2. In males, the changes are almost visible on the outside. The pennies is enlarged in size and often becomes erect by itself, especially on waking in the morning, the voice become deepens and hair begins to grow on face, in the armpit and around the sex organ and sometimes over the body.
Emotional and psychological changes occur as these changes are taking place in both sexes, so also sexual desires increases and interest in sexual activities.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of the study is to examine the role of impact of sex education in Junior secondary School in Mushin Local Government of Lagos State.
1.4 Research Questions
This research work seeks to find answers to the following questions.
a. Are there any differences in the sexual needs of female and male students in the school towards the introduction of sex education?
b. Are there any differences in the sexual knowledge of students from single and co-educational schools?
c. Are there any differences in the need of Christians and Muslims student towards the introduction of sex education?
d. What impact have introduction of sex education play on students sexual behaviour?
The following hypothesis which generated from the research question were tested.
1. There will be no significant differences in the response of teachers in the Junior Secondary Schools on topic taught in schools.
2. There will be no significant difference in the response of teacher on teaching of sex education in schools.
The result might not be full-representatives due to incorrect young people concerning the needs, interests, problems and goals that arise out of human psycho-sexual development primarily as related to love, marriage, parenthood and family life.
Gonden (1974) also defined sex education as a life-long process that begins in the home and continues in school, the media and the community it remains a learning experience phenomenon throughout the life cycle. No one source has a monopoly on it, if parents will want to be the only sex educators to their children, they should have to prevent them from going to public schools, having any friends watching television or reading virtually anything including the bible.
Nigeria societies are greatly being influenced by Western As the traditional authority of the family, the community, the church and the school seems to be declining, individual freedom or decision and action in relation to male and female association is fast increasing.
This is manifested in the parent youth especially the units concerned in this study who regards sex as a way of establishing, identify and a form of expressing love. They make themselves accessible to various stages of love making on television, in newspaper and magazine, stories and advertisement. The exposure of the students to sophisticated Western influence pave ways for sex abuse in the country. Infact, sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, syphilis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is now a major global public health problem among the youths. Since most students in Junior Secondary in Mushin Local Government of Lagos State are adolescents, it is necessary to guide them during this period of “storm and stress” they are to prepare for the stage and get well occupied with what they are to expect as regards the changes in their body so as to be able to adjust effectively. According to an outline for clinic personnel, parents teacher by the international Planned Parenthood federation of Nigeria the following are the changes that takes place in girls.
- The commencement of monthly period menstruation, the enlargement of breast and growth of hair around and above the opening of the female sex organ, (the public hair) the widening of the pelvic borne, the enlargement and ripening of the inner reproductive organ for reproduction i.e the uterus, ovaries and the oviduct.
- In males, the changes are almost visible on the outside. The pennies is enlarged in the and often becomes erect by itself, especially on waking in the morning, the voice become deepens and hair begins to grow on face, in the armpit and around the sex organ and sometimes over the body.
- Emotional and psychological changes occur as these changes are taking place in sexual activities become stronger. At the beginning of the adolescent stage, boys and girls are said to be becoming sexually matured. They are more conscious about their appearance. Girls look for make-ups to make them look more attractive to the opposite sex. Again, sex education is necessary for the youths in order to cut down cases of unwanted pregnancies. It is observed that teenage pregnancies are so rampant among the teenagers nowadays the large percentages of which are secondary schools students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Lucas (1969) call our attention to the fact that our speech is characterized by staggering discoveries of all sorts of pervasive sex attitude and also for the fact that these days there is an earlier onset of puberty which presented dangerous image of life because it is disturbed by the bahaviour of showing sexes. We then realized that it will be perilous if not catastrophic to allow young people to find their own way without equipping them first with basic information. The only solution to this problem is the application of educational principles that will best present the curricular materials which will equip the people well to live a desirable life with the opposite sex. The study will be able to enlighten the society and the student in particular on whether or not secondary education is vital to them. The study will broaden the student needs concerning marriage in their lives. The study will also help reduce the rate of contact of sexually related problems in the town.
Furthermore, virtually all youth attend schools for years before they initiate intercourse. These facts raise a variety of questions that this paper will attempt to partially answer in the Mushin Local Government schools.
As in Mushin Local Government schools before the introduction of sex education the indiscriminate sex was visually the order of the day. Pregnancy at tender age because sex rampant. Female education becomes so discouraged in the area. Parents were frustrated to send their female children to school due to unwanted pregnancy. Different advice or methods were introduced by school authority to stop untimely pregnancy but to no avail before the introduction of sex education in the school.
Possible mechanisms of school impact Social Scientist and educators have proffered a wide variety of explanations for how schools reduce sexual risk-taking behaviour. Some of their explanations have empirical research supporting them, while others are plausible, but lack supporting research.
For example educators concerned with adolescent sexual behaviour have suggest that:
- School structure students time and limit the amount of time that students can be alone and engage in sex.
- School increase interaction with and attachment to adults who discourage risk-taking behaviour of any kind (e.g. substance in sexual risk-taking or accident-producing behaviour. More generally, they create an environment which discourages risk-taking.
- Schools affect selection of friends and larger peer groups that are important to them. Because peer norms about sex and contraception significantly influence teens behaviour, this impact of schools may be substantial, however, just how school affect selection of friends and peers is not orientation arousal and desire, and the value of parenthood.
1.7 Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following term are defined:
1. Sex Education:- This can be described as a comprehensive developmental programme extending from infancy to maturity which is planned and executed to produce socially and morally desirable attitude, “practices and personal conduct” on the part of children and adults that will be best protect the individual as human and the family as social institutions.
2. Venereal Disease: - Disease passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse
3. Contraceptives: - Drugs or any material used inside or outside the sex organ as means of preventing an act of sex from resulting into pregnancy
4. Prostitution: - Desire of a woman to offer the use of her body for sexual intercourse because of material reward.
5. Pre-Marital Sex: - It is the act of involving in sexual intercourse when someone is not yet married.
Immoral: - the wicked and evil