THE USE OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION IN THE DIAGNOSES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

PROJECT INFORMATION

Format: Ms Word /  Chapters: 1-5 /  Pages: 67 /  Attributes: Experiment, Abstract, References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

Polymerase Chain Reaction was developed in 1984 by the American biochemist, Kary Mullis. Mullis received the Nobel Prize and the Japan Prize for developing PCR in 1993. However the basic principle of replicating a piece of DNA using two primers had already been described by Gobind Khorana in 1971. Progress was limited by primer synthesis and polymerase purification issues. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications.

The polymerase chain reaction is a powerful technique that has rapidly become one of the most widely used techniques in molecular biology because it is quick, inexpensive and simple.

The technique amplifies specific DNA fragments from minute quantities of source DNA material, even when that source DNA is of relatively poor quality. PCR; the quick, easy method for generating unlimited copies of any fragment of DNA, is one of those scientific developments that actually deserve timeworn superlatives like "revolutionary" and "breakthrough. From the daily practicalities of medical diagnosis to the theoretical framework of systematics, from courts of law to field studies of animal behavior, PCR takes analysis of tiny amounts of genetic material-even damaged genetic material to a new level of precision and reliability. Furthermore, many important contributions to the development and application of PCR technology have been made; however the research work attempt to examine the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

With the level of advanced equipments used in most of the health centers in Nigeria; there have being so many research on the diagnosis of disease but not even a single research on the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in Nigeria; that was what instigated the research on the above topic.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To determine the steps and component in polymerase chain reaction
  2. To investigate on the effect of temperature on the end result of the polymerase test
  3. To investigate on the factors affecting the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases
  4. To proffers solution to the above stated problem

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  1. What are the steps and component in polymerase chain reaction?
  2. What is the effect of temperature on the end result of the polymerase test?
  3. What are the factors affecting the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases will be of immense benefit to the entire medical centers in Nigeria, the state and the federal government; the study will also be of great assistance to other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research on the above topic. The study will discuss the step and the components of polymerase chain reaction, the effect of temperature on the end result of the polymerase test and the factors affecting the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature on the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases is limited to the medical centers in Nigeria; the study will cover the step and the components of polymerase chain reaction, the effect of temperature on the end result of the polymerase test and the factors affecting the use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases

1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

INFECTIOUS DISEASES:  are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another

POLYMERASE: is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids

CHAIN REACTION:  is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction, positive feedback leads to a self-amplifying chain of events