MEASUREMENT OF AND EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IN THE MARKET
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Noise is an environmental pollutant that is increasing very rapidly as a result of improvement in commercial, industrial and social activities. It is referred to as an undesirable sound which results from the activities of man.
The study of sound covers all fields of sound production, propagation and reception and is measured as sound pressure. Sound pressure level depends on the power output of the noise source and the environment.
The ear has the remarkable ability to handle an enormous range of sound. However, sound becomes a problem when it interferes with our activities such as sleep, work, recreation and reading.
The human hearing mechanism responds to changes in sound pressure in a relative rather than absolute manner. This is why a logarithmic scale called the decibel (dB) is used to measure sound pressure level.
The weakest sound that the human ear can detect is referred to as the threshold of hearing and it corresponds to 0 dB. On the other hand, the level of sound pressure that will cause pain to the ear is referred to as the threshold of pain and it corresponds to 120 dB.
A change of 3 dB in sound level is just enough to make such a change noticeable. However, an increase of 10 dB is perceived as doubling the loudness of the sound (Defra, 2003). In the measurement of sound, two weighting network namely the A and C network are employed. However, for environmental purposes, the measurement is made using an A-weighted scale (dBA) because this scale measures sound level in approximately the same way as the human ear (J.B Alam, 2006).
Noise pollution has been recognized as a major treat confronting the world today. The WHO reveals that noise is a dangerous agent which affects human health and the environment. However, People in Nigeria do not pay significant attention to the seriousness of noise pollution and its dangerous environmental consequences. This is however not the case with other countries of the world where necessary actions have been put in place to control and regulate this peril.
The determination of noise level in some towns in Delta State, Nigeria shows that most noise pollutions are caused by lack of public awareness and the ignorance of the people. This is why a lot of people in Nigeria are subjecting themselves to loud noises.
According to (Anomohanran and Osemeikhian, 2008) stated that automobiles, commercial motorcycles, recording houses and the use of electricity generators as the factors responsible for most of the noise experienced in Nigeria.
In the same light, the study conducted at Agbor, Nigeria shows that noise from most points in the city are caused by big trucks such as lories and luxurious buses and also by commercial activities (Anomohanran and Osemeikhian, 2008). However, (Olayinka and Abdullahi, 2008) in a study conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, observed that the population growth of the city which increased over 50% between 1980 and 2006 was partly responsible for the rise in noise pollution. They also asserted that road traffic is the predominant and most generalized noise source in Nigeria. The study in this regard wishes to assess the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Communication as a result of sound produced is very effective in our day to day activities but when the frequency becomes too much it becomes noise. The level of noise in most of the communities in Nigeria is usually high in the market place. Noise has significant effect of human health and social well being especially when the temperature is high. Secondly there have been several researches on the effect of environmental noise but not even a single research has been carried out on the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to assess the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market. Other specific objectives of the study include:
- To determine the metric for the measurement of noise in the market
- To investigate on the people’s perception about the level of noise in the community
- To determine the effect of environmental noise on human health
- To investigate on the factors affecting the measurement of environmental noise in the market
- To determine the noise map during the day and at night
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
- What is the metric for the measurement of noise in the market?
- What is the people’s perception about the level of noise in the community?
- What is the effect of environmental noise on human health?
- What are the factors affecting the measurement of environmental noise in the market?
- What is the difference between the noise during the day and at night?
1.5 ORGANISATION OF STUDY
The chapter one of the research work will contain the background of the study, the statement of research problem, the aim and objectives of the study, the research questions, and the significance of study, the scope of the study, the limitation of the study and definition of terms. The chapter two of the research work will contain the review of related literature on the environmental noise and its effect on market. The chapter three of the research work will contain the materials and the method used in the measurement and the determination of environmental noise in the market. The chapter four will deal with the experiment to determine the effect of environmental noise in the market while the chapter five of the research work will discuss summarize, conclude and recommend ways to control environmental noise based on the findings of the study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market will be of immense benefit to the entire market in Nigeria, the community, the state and the federal government of Nigeria; the study will also be of great assistance to other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research on the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market as the findings of the study will determine the metric for the measurement of environmental noise, the study will also determine the people’s percent of environmental noise and its effect of health. Finally the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the topic.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study on the measurement and effect of environmental noise in the market is limited to the markets in Abuja. The study will cover the metric for the measurement of environmental noise; the study will also determine the people’s percent of environmental noise and its effect of health
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE: is the summary of noise pollution from outside, caused by transport, industrial and recreational activities
DECIBEL: The decibel (dB) is used to measure sound level, but it is also widely used in electronics, signals and communication